My very first sourdough loaf surprisingly turned out to be pretty decent, but oh boy was it sour. Sour like those candies you really only eat at the movie theater because they destroy your tongue, sour. Ok, maybe that’s an exaggeration but I remember my wife choking down a slice commenting that it was “pretty good, yeah, pretty good bread” and only later did she fess up that it was “actually not really that good to be honest.” But all-in-all the bread baked fully rose nicely and had a pretty decent crust. And you know what, we ate the entire thing because despite its sourness it still was tasty, and one has to start somewhere, right? And starting out can be daunting, especially with sourdough, but that’s what this post is about: a beginner’s sourdough bread. A how-to guide on getting started with baking my style of sourdough at home with a touch more explanation for some of the steps and terms.
I vividly remember the weeks leading up to that first loaf: weeks of voraciously reading Tartine Bread finally thinking that my newborn sourdough starter and I were ready to take on the sourdough world. Dog-eared pages, post-it notes, bookmarks, torn pages and highlighted passages peppered the book that first kindled that baking spark. My notebook had a schedule scribbled down, surprisingly mostly the same schedule and outline I follow today, with what to do when, and how to do it. Flour was purchased. Water was filtered. The kitchen towels were cleaned. And just like any good engineer I dove in head-first and got my hands dirty.
Fast forward a few bakes, a few “aha” moments (like don’t use the entire levain made from the Tartine recipe, they make extra), and many breakfasts and dinners with fresh sourdough — I found myself descending into a full baking obsession. There was something ancient about performing the whole process, something exciting about mixing together such simple and humble ingredients that would eventually produce beautiful life-giving sustenance: modern-day alchemy. It’s such a simple thing and yet brings so much joy when family & friends tear into a freshly baked loaf. I wanted to bake every day of every week.
Let’s get started with a short introduction into common baking terms and definitions so we all have a common vocabulary.
A starter is a mix of flour and water that naturally ferments. You’ll feed the starter indefinitely, and when you are going to make bread, you take a small amount of this starter to create an off-shoot or levain. This levain will eventually be used in making bread and cease to exist when baked in the oven.
Levain (or leaven)
Made with the starter, but only a small off-shoot, the levain is what is “built” to provide the dough with a starting population of yeast and bacteria. It’s an off-shoot because the levain is eventually mixed into the dough when making bread, and has the same fate as the bread itself: to be baked in the oven. The levain is always made with a portion of a starter when the starter is mature, or at its peak (more on this later).
Autolyse (“auto-lease”) is a step in the baking process where only flour and water are mixed together, always at the beginning of the whole process. Not only does it initiate enzymatic activity in the dough which helps draw out sugars from the flour, but it also increases its extensibility (the ability for the dough to stretch out without tearing). Increased extensibility is a good thing: it allows the dough to expand and fill with gasses, resulting in a light & airy loaf.
This is the first rise of the dough as a single cohesive mass and takes place after mixing the flour, salt, and levain. The fermentation process during this step is critical and provides flavor to the dough in the form of alcohols & acids and also leavens the dough through gaseous byproducts.
The final rise, typically done at cooler temperatures for recipes here at my site, is where the divided and shaped dough continues to ferment, further strengthening the dough and leavening it.
Final Dough Temperature (FDT)
The final dough temperature (FDT)6 is the temperature of the dough right after mixing all ingredients together. Naturally, each ingredient (levain, the flour, the water, and the ambient environment) has a temperature and while most of these are out of our control, we can adjust the water temperature. Adjusting it enables us to change the FDT of the entire dough mass to meet whatever the recipe calls for. In the following example we will determine what our water temperature needs to be to achieve an FDT of 78°F (25°C):
|Room Temperature||75°F (24°C)|
WaterTemp = (FDT x 4) - (LevainTemp + FlourTemp + AmbientTemp) 7 WaterTemp = (78 x 4) - (75 + 70 + 75) WaterTemp = 92°F
We need to warm our water to 92°F (33°C) so at the end of our mix, our final dough temperature will be 78°F (25°C).
For more information on dough temperatures, and even a live desired dough temperature calculator, head to my post on The Importance of Dough Temperature in Baking.
Baker’s Percentages (Baker’s Math)
Baker’s math, or baker’s percentages, help bakers adjust the actual quantity of the ingredients up or down, depending on how much bread they have to make. I write all the formulas here using baker’s percentages where all ingredient weights are a percentage of the total flour weight, which always adds up to 100%.
For a deeper look at this, have a read through my introduction to baker’s percentages.
If you’re finding this recipe too complex, have a look at my Simple Weekday Sourdough Bread for a different approach.
Creating a Sourdough Starter
It all begins with a sourdough starter. The first thing we need to do is get a strong sourdough starter rising and falling predictably. If you’ve already done this we can proceed, if not I have an entire post dedicated to creating a sourdough starter.
If you’re wondering how I maintain my starter on a day-to-day basis, take a look at my sourdough starter maintenance routine. This guide will show you what visual cues to look for to determine when your starter is ready for a refreshment (feeding) when it’s gone a bit too far before refreshment, and lastly when it’s at its peak and ready to be used for making a levain.
There are a few necessary tools for baking your first loaf of bread. This might look like a long list but many of these things you probably already have in your kitchen — only buy what you don’t have. One item is so necessary I have to draw attention to it upfront: a kitchen scale. If you don’t have a kitchen scale, please consider buying one. Measuring flour with cups and scoops is quite inaccurate!
- combo cooker like a Lodge 3qt. cast iron combo cooker or a Le Creuset Dutch oven that can withstand 500°F (260°C) in the oven, has a lid and will create a good seal when covered8
- two medium-sized kitchen bowls to proof your dough
- two kitchen towels or tea towels to line the bowls
- bench knife to cut and shape the dough
- kitchen scale that measures in grams
- mixing bowl
- instant read thermometer
- white rice flour for dusting proofing bowl
- pack of razor blades & a coffee stirrer, or a pair of kitchen shears, for making a “lame” to score the dough before baking
- sea salt
- parchment paper
- pizza peel (or cutting board)
- heavy duty oven mitt
You can find a full list of all the tools I use when baking at my baking tools page.
One thing I didn’t quite grasp when I started baking was how crucial it is to monitor your dough and ambient temperature. This is where an instant-read thermometer plays a role.
You must treat temperature as an ingredient. This means if you mix with water that is 70°F (21°C) and then a week later mix with water that is 80°F (26°C), you will get drastically different outcomes. I clearly list a temperature range for each of the baking steps below. If you’re not able to keep temperatures in the specified ranges, know that lower temperatures generally mean things will take longer and higher temperatures generally mean things will take a shorter time.
For more information on temperatures in baking, see my post on The Importance of Dough Temperature in Baking.
For this recipe, I used commonly available supermarket flour: Bob’s Red Mill Artisan Bread Flour, Bob’s Red Mill Whole Wheat Flour and Bob’s Red Mill Dark Rye Flour. These are great flour choices, but equally suitable are any of King Arthur’s offerings. I chose “bread flour” for the white component as it has a higher protein percentage compared to all-purpose flour. This helps bring significant strength to the dough, so less mixing is required and generally makes things a bit easier for your first loaf of bread9.
If you have a local source for flour I highly recommend seeking that out first. Not only does it support local farmers and millers, but it will also likely be milled recently, packing lots of flavor.
This beginner’s sourdough bread is a two day formula where the bread is cold proofed (retarded) in the fridge overnight.
See the baking schedule at right for a high-level view of what step takes place when.
Beginner’s Sourdough Bread Formula
|Total Dough Weight||1,800 grams|
|Yield||2 x 900-gram loaves|
This is a roll-up of the entire formula for this dough — all of the ingredients you’ll need to make two loaves of bread.
Note: after much feedback (and testing here!) I’ve dropped the hydration from 78% to 72% to make this dough a bit more approachable, especially for those new to baking.
|811g||Bob’s Red Mill Artisan Bread Flour||80.00%|
|152g||Bob’s Red Mill Stoneground Whole Wheat Flour||15.00%|
|51g||Bob’s Red Mill Dark Rye Flour||5.00%|
|18g||Fine sea salt||1.80%|
|38g||Mature, 100% hydration sourdough starter||3.75%|
Beginner’s Sourdough Bread Method
1. Levain – 8:00 a.m.
A levain is composed of a ratio of bacteria and yeast and is essentially flour that has been pre-fermented. Not only does it add flavor complexity to the dough, but it also is the primary agent responsible for making it rise. The levain is made ahead of time and given time to ferment before mixing the main dough.
|38g||Mature sourdough starter (100% hydration)||50%|
|38g||Bob’s Red Mill Stoneground Whole Wheat||50%|
|38g||Bob’s Red Mill Artisan Bread Flour||50%|
Mix together everything called for in the table above in a clean jar in the morning and store somewhere around 74-76°F (23-24°C) ambient for 5-6 hours. Keep an eye on how your levain is progressing during this time. When it’s ready to be used it will be expanded, bubbly on top & at the sides, and smell almost a little sour. The photo above is the state of my levain just before going into my dough mix at 1:00 p.m. below.
2. Autolyse – 12:00 p.m.
The target final dough temperature (FDT) for this dough is 78°F (25°C). As described in the temperature section above, this means try to get the dough to come in at this temperature right at the end of mixing (which is also right at the beginning of bulk fermentation). If necessary, warm or cool the mixing water called for below.
|773g||Bob’s Red Mill Artisan Bread Flour|
|114g||Bob’s Red Mill Stoneground Whole Wheat Flour|
|51g||Bob’s Red Mill Dark Rye Flour|
|603g||Water (this has 50g less than the overall formula, reserved for Mix step below)|
Using your hands, mix all the flour and the water (reserve 50g water for later) called for in the “Dough Mix” section above in a bowl until all dry bits are hydrated. Cover the bowl and store somewhere warm (near your levain is convenient) for 1 hour.
Note that this autolyse stage does not incorporate or use salt or the levain build in any way, they are two separate entities at this point that will be mixed together later in the process.
3. Mix – 1:00 p.m.
|50g||Reserved water (this water was held back in the Autolyse step)|
|18g||Fine sea salt|
|184g||Mature, 100% hydration levain (from Levain, above)|
At this point your autolyse is complete and your levain is ready. If your dough is feeling very, very wet and shaggy, do not use all of the reserved 50g of water, just use a splash to help incorporate the salt and levain. If the dough feels good to you, use all the reserved water.
Add the ingredients in the table above (salt, reserved water, and levain) to your flour and water mixed in the Autolyse step. I like to spread everything on top of dough resting in the bowl and use my hand to pinch all the ingredients together. Transfer dough to a tub or thick-walled bowl for bulk fermentation.
At this point use your instant-read thermometer to take the temperature of your dough to get your final dough temperature. If your FDT is below 78°F (25°C) next time use warmer water, and conversely, if it’s above 78°F (25°C) use cooler water.
4. Bulk Fermentation – 1:10 p.m. to 5:10 p.m.
At 76-80°F (24-26°C) ambient temperature bulk fermentation should go for about 4 hours. Perform 3 sets of stretch and folds during bulk fermentation, spaced out by 30 minutes.
Each set consists of 4 folds, one at the North, South, East and West sides. Wet your hands with a little water to prevent sticking and then lift up one side (North) of the dough with two hands. Stretch the dough up high enough just so that you can fold it completely over to the other side of the dough in the bowl. Rotate the bowl 180° and do the other side (South). Finish the other two sides (East and West) to complete the set. Let the dough rest 30 minutes, covered, between sets.
After that third set of stretch and folds, let the dough rest the remainder of bulk fermentation. During this time we let the flour ferment further, aerating it (making it rise), strengthening it and developing flavor.
At the end of bulk fermentation your dough should have risen anywhere between 20% and 50%, should show some bubbles on top, sides and the edge of the dough where it meets the bowl should be slightly domed showing strength. In the photo below you can see all these signs.
5. Divide & Preshape – 5:15 p.m.
Lightly flour your work surface and dump out the dough. With your bench knife in one hand divide the dough into two halves. Lightly flour your other hand and using both the knife and your hand turn each half of dough on the counter while lightly pulling the dough towards you. This gentle turning and pulling motion will develop tension on the top of the dough forming a round circle.
Let the dough rest for 25 minutes, uncovered.
6. Shape – 5:35 p.m.
If you’re new to shaping bread dough, have a look at my Guide to Shaping a Boule (
Lightly flour the top of your dough rounds and the work surface. Working with one at a time, flip the round so the floured top is now down on the floured work surface.
As seen in the image below, lightly flour your hands and grab the bottom of the round and stretch it lightly downward towards your body and then up and over about 2/3 the way to the top.
Then, grab the left and right sides of the dough and stretch them away from each other, fold one side over toward the other and repeat with the other side.
Then, grab the top of the circle and stretch away from your body and fold down to the bottom of the resting dough. You’ll now have a tight package that resembles a letter.
Finally, flip, or roll down the dough so the seams are all on the bottom and using two hands cup the top part of the round and drag the dough gently towards your body. The angle of your hands will gently press the bottom of the dough on the counter creating tension, forming a skin on the top of the dough as you drag.
After shaping, let the dough rest on the bench for a few minutes and then place seam-side-up into a towel-lined kitchen bowl that was lightly dusted with white rice flour.
7. Rest & Proof – 5:40 p.m. to 9:30 a.m. (next day)
To prevent your dough from drying out overnight, place your bowls containing your shaped dough in plastic bags sealed shut with a rubber band. I will usually puff up the plastic bag around the bowl by opening it wide and then quickly closing the opening.
Once covered, let the dough rest on the counter for 20 minutes. Then, retard10 in the refrigerator at 38°F (3°C) for 16 hours.
During this time overall fermentation will slow, but (good) bacteria activity will continue, contributing to a more complex flavor and deeper crust coloring.
8. Bake – Next Morning: Preheat oven at 8:30 a.m., Bake at 9:30 a.m.
Preheat your combo cooker or Dutch oven inside your oven for 1 hour at 450°F (232°C). If you’re using a combo cooker, place the shallow side face up on one side and the heavier, deep side, face down on the other.
When you’re done preheating, take one of your plastic bag-wrapped loaves out of the fridge and unwrap it. Cut a piece of parchment paper so it fits over the top of your basket and place on a pizza peel. Invert the peel and parchment paper so they are resting on top of your basket containing your dough. Then flip the whole thing over. Remove the basket and your dough should be resting on the parchment.
Score these loaves at a 90° angle between the razor blade and dough. If you want a more pronounced “ear” at each score line, lower the angle between the blade and the dough (so the blade is close to horizontal with the dough). I chose to do a “box” pattern. If using scissors, snip the dough a few times at a very shallow angle between the scissors and the dough, forming a set of ridges down the center of the dough.
While wearing your oven mitt, and with caution, pull out your shallow side of the combo cooker. Using your pizza peel, drag a corner of the parchment paper to slide your dough into the combo cooker. Place it back into the oven and cover the shallow side with the deep side to create a seal. This sealed environment helps trap the escaping steam from your dough to steam the exterior of the loaf as it bakes, encouraging maximal rise.
Bake for 20 minutes. After 20 minutes, use your oven mitt to very carefully remove the top of the combo cooker. Leave the large side of the combo cooker in the oven to the side of the shallow part of the cooker holding your dough. Close the oven door and bake for 30 more minutes. If you are unsure if your bread is done, use your thermometer to test the internal temperature, it should register over 208°F (97°C).
When done, carefully use your oven mitt to remove the bread from the combo cooker (I will grab a corner of the parchment paper and drag the cooked bread out of the cooker) and cool on a wire rack. Place the combo cooker back in the oven and let it heat back up 10-15 minutes. Repeat for the second loaf.
If you’re running into problems with baking in a Dutch oven, and have burned the bottom of your loaves, check out my guide on how to bake bread in a dutch oven for some fixes.
Wait 1-2 hours before slicing the bread (I know, it’s hard to do this) to ensure the interior is set and follow my guide to storing bread to maintain freshness.
For those new to sourdough baking, this is a great place to start. The hydration of the dough is not wildly high making shaping much more approachable, but as you can see below, this makes some really great (and healthy) bread. A crunchy crust, open interior and a taste that will put a smile on your face. This recipe is also a jumping-off point for you to make this bread your own: higher or lower hydration, the addition of seeds and nuts, fruit and/or different shaping.
Baked in a combo cooker, this bread had ample steam to rise high with excellent coloring and a thin, brittle crust. A rustic bread like this just begs to be torn apart and eaten with a thick, hearty stew. Perfect.
Thanks to a lengthy and cold overnight proof, you first get a touch of sourness at first taste. The soft crumb and crackly crust present a really nice contrast fall into balance. I’m not a fan of bread that has a pale and uninteresting crust with a spongy crumb, and this is not that kind of bread. As I mentioned earlier I do find the taste of these higher protein flours to be a tiny bit more “gummy” when used in high quantity, but don’t let that discourage you from making this bread — it’s fantastic.
With this basic sourdough process & formula, you can endlessly modify with add-ins like walnuts, cranberries, seeds and a host of other ingredients bound only by your imagination. As your baking experience increases you can tweak the taste of this sourdough by blending flour types, increasing or decreasing hydration, changing the amount of levain in your mix, and begin to work on a flavor profile that suits your individual taste. But the most important thing is to bake and have fun, remember that sometimes bread doesn’t come out as you intended but stick to it and you’ll be rewarded time and time again.
And of course, buon appetito!
If you use this recipe, tag @maurizio on Instagram and use the hashtag #theperfectloaf so I can take a look!